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 Dr. Edith Antunes

Position: Senior Researcher (NMR spectroscopist)
Department: Department of Chemistry
Faculty: Faculty of Natural Science
Qualifications: BSc (Rhodes), BScH (Rhodes), MSc (Rhodes), PhD (Rhodes)
Tel: 021 959 4020
Fax: 021 959 3055


 I joined the Chemistry Department at UWC in 2014 as the NMR spectroscopy specialist from Rhodes University where I was an instrument specialist and had completed my PhD in chemistry. This followed a move from Rhodes University where I had completed my undergraduate studies in Chemistry and geology through to a PhD in chemistry. I obtained my PhD in marine natural products chemistry under the supervision of Prof. M. Davies-Coleman in 2003. I used NMR various NMR techniques extensively during this and my subsequent research. Prof. S. Daya was my first postdoctoral supervisor in 2004 in the Faculty of Pharmacy (in the Division of Pharmacology) and my project involved measuring the effect of various constituents on the neurotransmitter levels in rat brain. After this I was fortunate to obtain an NRF postdoctoral scholarship  where I would be able to study under Dr. W. Gerwick at Oregon State University,  again in natural products. At OSU I worked primarily on cyanobacteria which contained highly potent peptides. I returned to Rhodes University to take up another postdoctoral post in natural products (this time marine algae) under Prof. D. Beukes. I transferred to Prof. T. Nyokong where I worked on nanomaterials and macrocycles such as phthalocyanines, porphyrins and corroles.  This led to a position as the DST/Mintek NIC-Sensors Manager at Rhodes University, where I was responsible for the management of several pieces of equipment such as the TCSPC, XPS, MALDI-TOF MS, XRD, Raman and EPR spectrometers in addition to an HPLC (with DAD), an elemental analyser, a Surface area analyser and a TG/DTG analyser. During this time I acquired extensive experience in the management, training, use and maintenance of sophisticated research equipment such as the XRD, XPS and MALDI-TOF MS which is reflected in my research outputs. My current research interests are therefore varied and include 1) the isolation and structural elucidation of novel, bioactive, natural products specifically from marine sponges; 2)  the synthesis and photophysical characterisation of porphyrinoid macrocyles which may be employed as sensors, photocatalysts and as therapeutic agents for use in the treatment of cancer using photodynamic therapy; 4) the synthesis and characterisation of nanoparticles such as quantum dots, noble metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, as well as upconversion nanoparticles for use as imaging agents and or as delivery platforms. More recently I have started work on the production of noble metal nanoparticles using completely ‘green’ methods. These research activities involve the use of a variety of spectroscopic techniques such as NMR, XRD, ICP-OES, NMR, LC-ESIMS, analytical and semi-preparative HPLC, GC, DSC, TG, Raman and IR methods, including XPS, EPR and MALDI-TOF MS.



  •  Brown, M.E., Antunes, E.M., Glass, B.D., Lebete, M., Walker, R.B.  DSC screening of potential prochlorperazine-excipient interactions in preformulation studies (1999) Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 56 (3), pp. 1317-1322. 

  • Glass, B.D., Brown, M.E., Daya, S., Worthington, M.S., Drummond, P., Antunes, E., Lebete, M., Anoopkumar-Dukie, S., Maharaj, D. Influence of cyclodextrins on the photostability of selected drug molecules in solution and the solid-state(2001) International Journal of Photoenergy, 3 (4), pp. 205-211. 

  • Maharaj, D.S., Anoopkumar-Dukie, S., Glass, B.D., Antunes, E.M., Lack, B., Walker, R.B., Daya, S.The identification of the UV degradants of melatonin and their ability to scavenge free radicals (2002) Journal of Pineal Research, 32 (4), pp. 257-261. 

  • Antunes, E.M., Beukes, D.R., Kelly, M., Samaai, T., Barrows, L.R., Marshall, K.M., Sincich, C., Davies-Coleman, M.T .Cytotoxic pyrroloiminoquinones from four new species of South African Latrunculid sponges (2004) Journal of Natural Products, 67 (8), pp. 1268-1276. 

  • Antunes, E.M., Copp, B.R., Davies-Coleman, M.T., Samaai, T.Pyrroloiminoquinone and related metabolites from marine sponges (2005) Natural Product Reports, 22 (1), pp. 62-72.

  • Maharaj, D.S., Molell, H., Antunes, E.M., Maharaj, H., Maree, D.M., Nyokong, T., Glass, B.D., Daya, S. Melatonin generates singlet oxygen on laser irradiation but acts as a quencher when irradiated by lamp photolysis (2005) Journal of Pineal Research, 38 (3), pp. 153-156. 

  • Maharaj, D.S., Maharaj, H., Antunes, E.M., Maree, D.M., Nyokong, T., Glass, B.D., Daya, S. 6-Hydroxymelatonin protects against quinolinic-acid-induced oxidative neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus (2005) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 57 (7), pp. 877-881. 

  • Antunes, E.M., Maree, S.E., Nyokong, T., Davies-Coleman, M.T., Maree, M.D. The effect of structure on the electrochemical properties of 14 marine pyrroloquinoline metabolites (2005) Journal of Chemical Research, (12), pp. 780-783.

  • Dairam, A., Antunes, E.M., Saravanan, K.S., Daya, S. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, tolmetin and sulindac, inhibit liver tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase activity and alter brain neurotransmitter levels (2006) Life Sciences, 79 (24), pp. 2269-2274. 

  • Mbambisa, G., Tau, P., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of purple manganese(III) and red titanium(IV) phthalocyanine complexes octa-substituted at non-peripheral positions with pentylthio group (2007) Polyhedron, 26 (18), pp. 5355-5364. 

  • Khene, S., Ogunsipe, A., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Microwave synthesis and photophysics of new tetrasulfonated tin(II) macrocycles (2007) Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines, 11 (2), pp. 109-117. 

  • Mann, M.G.A., Mkwananzi, H.B., Antunes, E.M., Whibley, C.E., Hendricks, D.T., Bolton, J.J., Beukes, D.R. Halogenated monoterpene aldehydes from the South African marine alga Plocamium corallorhiza (2007) Journal of Natural Products, 70 (4), pp. 596-599. 

  • Dairam, A., Limson, J.L., Watkins, G.M., Antunes, E., Daya, S. Curcuminoids, curcumin, and demethoxycurcumin reduce lead-induced memory deficits in male wistar rats (2007) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55 (3), pp. 1039-1044. 

  • Marais, E., Klein, R., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Photocatalysis of 4-nitrophenol using zinc phthalocyanine complexes (2007) Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 261 (1), pp. 36-42. 

  • Marais, E., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Photocatalytic transformation of 4-nitrophenol in aqueous media using suspended, water-insoluble metallophthalocyanine complexes (2008) Journal of Coordination Chemistry, 61 (23), pp. 3727-3739. 

  • Chidawanyika, W., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Synthesis and solvent effects on the photophysicochemical properties of novel cadmium phenoxy phthalocyanines (2008) Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 195 (2-3), pp. 183-190. 

  • Antunes, E.M., Nyokong, T. Synthesis and photophysical properties of tetra- and octasubstituted phosphorous oxide triazatetrabenzcorrole photosensitizers (2008) Metal-Based Drugs, 2008, art. no. 498916.

  • Lategan, C., Kellerman, T., Afolayan, A.F., Mann, M.G., Antunes, E.M., Smith, P.J., Bolton, J.J., Beukes, D.R. Antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of South African marine algal extracts (2009) Pharmaceutical Biology, 47 (5), pp. 408-413.

  • Antunes, E.M., Nyokong, T. Synthesis and photophysical behavior of axially substituted phthalocyanine, tetrabenzotriazaporphyrin, and triazatetrabenzcorrole phosphorous complexes (2009) Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines, 13 (1), pp. 153-160. 

  • Britton, J., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Fluorescence studies of quantum dots and zinc tetraamino phthalocyanine conjugates (2009) Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 12 (9), pp. 828-831. 

  • Saydan, N., Durmuş, M., Dizge, M.G., Yaman, H., Gürek, A.G., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T., Ahsen, V. Water-soluble phthalocyanines mediated photodynamic effect on mesothelioma cells (2009) Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines, 13 (6), pp. 681-690. 

  • Nombona, N., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. The synthesis and fluorescence behaviour of phthalocyanines unsymmetrically substituted with naphthol and carboxy groups (2010) Dyes and Pigments, 86 (1), pp. 68-73. 

  • Chidawanyika, W., Litwinski, C., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Photophysical study of a covalently linked quantum dot-low symmetry phthalocyanine conjugate (2010) Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 212 (1), pp. 27-35. 

  • Moeno, S., Antunes, E., Khene, S., Litwinski, C., Nyokong, T. The effect of substituents on the photoinduced energy transfer between CdTe quantum dots and mercapto substituted zinc phthalocyanine derivatives (2010) Dalton Transactions, 39 (14), pp. 3460-3471. 

  • Britton, J., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Fluorescence quenching and energy transfer in conjugates of quantum dots with zinc and indium tetraamino phthalocyanines (2010) Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 210 (1), pp. 1-7. 

  • Mashazi, P., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Probing electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of cobalt(II) and manganese(III) octakis(hexylthio)phthalocyanine as self-assembled monolayers (2010) Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines, 14 (11), pp. 932-947. 

  • Coates, M., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Electrochemical, spectroscopic and microscopic studies of new manganese phthalocyanine complexes in solution and as self-assembled monolayers on gold (2010) Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines, 14 (7), pp. 568-581. 

  • Ogunbayo, T.B., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Investigation of homogeneous photosensitized oxidation activities of palladium and platinum octasubstituted phthalocyanines: Oxidation of 4-nitrophenol (2011) Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 334 (1-2), pp. 123-129. 

  • Quinton, D., Antunes, E., Griveau, S., Nyokong, T., Bedioui, F. Cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry of a novel manganese phthalocyanine substituted with hexynyl groups (2011) Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 14 (1), pp. 330-332. 

  • Antunes, E.M., Afolayan, A.F., Chiwakata, M.T., Fakee, J., Knott, M.G., Whibley, C.E., Hendricks, D.T., Bolton, J.J., Beukes, D.R.Identification and in vitro anti-esophageal cancer activity of a series of halogenated monoterpenes isolated from the South African seaweeds Plocamium suhrii and Plocamium cornutum (2011) Phytochemistry, 72 (8), pp. 769-772. 

  • D'Souza, S., Antunes, E., Litwinski, C., Nyokong, T. Photophysical behavior of zinc monoaminophthalocyanines linked to mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe quantum dots (2011) Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 220 (1), pp. 11-19. 

  • D'Souza, S., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Synthesis and photophysical studies of CdTe quantum dot-monosubstituted zinc phthalocyanine conjugates (2011) Inorganica Chimica Acta, 367 (1), pp. 173-181. 

  • Moeno, S., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. The determination of the photosensitizing properties of mercapto substituted phthalocyanine derivatives in the presence of quantum dots capped with mercaptopropionic acid (2011) Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 218 (1), pp. 101-110. 

  • Chauke, V.P., Antunes, E., Chidawanyika, W., Nyokong, T. Photocatalytic behaviour of tantalum (V) phthalocyanines in the presence of gold nanoparticles towards the oxidation of cyclohexene (2011) Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 335 (1-2), pp. 121-128. 

  • Nombona, N., Antunes, E., Litwinski, C., Nyokong, T. Synthesis and photophysical studies of phthalocyanine-gold nanoparticle conjugates (2011) Dalton Transactions, 40 (44), pp. 11876-11884. 

  • Chauke, V.P., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Comparative behavior of conjugates of tantalum phthalocyanines with gold nanoparticles or single walled carbon nanotubes towards bisphenol A electrocatalysis (2011) Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 661 (1), pp. 1-7

  • Moeno, S., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Synthesis and photophysical properties of a novel zinc photosensitizer and its gold nanoparticle conjugate (2011) Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 222 (2-3), pp. 343-350.

  • Nombona, N., Maduray, K., Antunes, E., Karsten, A., Nyokong, T. Synthesis of phthalocyanine conjugates with gold nanoparticles and liposomes for photodynamic therapy (2012) Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 107 (1), pp. 35-44. 

  • Forteath, S., Antunes, E., Chidawanyika, W., Nyokong, T. Unquenched fluorescence lifetime for β-phenylthio substituted zinc phthalocyanine upon conjugation to gold nanoparticles (2012) Polyhedron, 34 (1), pp. 114-120. 

  • Antunes, E., Litwinski, C., Nyokong, T.Conjugates of Nanomaterials with Phthalocyanines(2012) Intelligent Nanomaterials: Processes, Properties, and Applications, pp. 347-423. 

  • Zugle, R., Antunes, E., Khene, S., Nyokong, T. Photooxidation of 4-chlorophenol sensitized by lutetium tetraphenoxy phthalocyanine anchored on electrospun polystyrene polymer fiber (2012) Polyhedron, 33 (1), pp. 74-81. 

  • Mthethwa, T.P., Arslanoglu, Y., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Photophysical behaviour of cationic 2-(dimethylamino) ethanethio tetrasubstituted phthalocyanine complexes in the presence of gold nanoparticles (2012) Polyhedron, 38 (1), pp. 169-177. 

  • Nombona, N., Antunes, E., Chidawanyika, W., Kleyi, P., Tshentu, Z., Nyokong, T. Synthesis, photophysics and photochemistry of phthalocyanine-ε- polylysine conjugates in the presence of metal nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus (2012)Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 233, pp. 24-33

  • Forteath, S., Antunes, E., Chidawanyika, W., Nyokong, T.Synthesis and photophysical behavior of a novel zinc phthalocyanine containing a single carboxylic acid and three phenylthio substituents (2012) Journal of Luminescence, 132 (9), pp. 2318-2324. 

  • Tombe, S., Chidawanyika, W., Antunes, E., Priniotakis, G., Westbroek, P., Nyokong, T. Physicochemical behavior of zinc tetrakis (benzylmercapto) phthalocyanine when used to functionalize gold nanoparticles and in electronspun fibers (2012) Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 240, pp. 50-58. 

  • Malinga, N., Dolotova, O., Bulgakov, R., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Synthesis and physicochemical behaviour of aluminium trikis and tetrakis (diaquaplatinum) octacarboxyphthalocynine (2012) Dyes and Pigments, 95 (3), pp. 572-579.

  •  Ogunlaja, A.S., Chidawanyika, W., Antunes, E., Fernandes, M.A., Nyokong, T., Torto, N., Tshentu, Z.R. Oxovanadium(iv)-catalysed oxidation of dibenzothiophene and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (2012) Dalton Transactions, 41 (45), pp. 13908-13918.

  • Rapulenyane, N., Antunes, E., Masilela, N., Nyokong, T. Synthesis and photophysicochemical properties of novel zinc phthalocyanines mono substituted with carboxyl containing functional groups (2012) Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 250, pp. 18-24.

  • Britton, J., Litwinski, C., Antunes, E., Durmu, M., Chaukea, V., Nyokong, T. Optical limiting analysis of phthalocyanines in Polymer Thin Films (2013) Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry, 50 (1), pp. 110-120.

  • Sekhosana, K.E., Antunes, E., Khene, S., D'Souza, S., Nyokong, T. Fluorescence behavior of glutathione capped CdTe@ZnS quantum dots chemically coordinated to zinc octacarboxy phthalocyanines (2013) Journal of Luminescence, 136, pp. 255-264.

  • Khoza, P., Antunes, E., Chen, J.-Y., Nyokong, T. Synthesis and photophysicochemical studies of a water soluble conjugate between folic acid and zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine (2013) Journal of Luminescence, 134, pp. 784-790.

  • Tombe, S., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. The photophysical and photochemical behaviour of coumarin-derivatized zinc phthalocyanine when conjugated with gold nanoparticles and electrospun into polymer fibers (2013) New Journal of Chemistry, 37 (3), pp. 679-689. 

  • Antunes, E., Rapulenyane, N., Ledwaba, M., Litwinski, C., Chidawanyika, W., Nyokong, T.The synthesis and characterisation of magnetic nanoparticles and their interaction with a zinc phthalocyanine (2013) Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 29, pp. 60-64. 

  • Fashina, A., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Characterization and photophysical behavior of phthalocyanines when grafted onto silica nanoparticles(2013) Polyhedron, 53, pp. 278-285.

  • Adegoke, O., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Nanoconjugates of CdTe@ZnS quantum dots with cobalt tetraamino- phthalocyanine: Characterization and implications for the fluorescence recognition of superoxide anion(2013) Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 257, pp. 11-19.

  • Rapulenyane, N., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.A study of the photophysicochemical and antimicrobial properties of two zinc phthalocyanine-silver nanoparticle conjugates (2013) New Journal of Chemistry, 37 (4), pp. 1216-1223. 

  • Modisha, P., Antunes, E., MacK, J., Nyokong, T.Improvement of the photophysical parameters of zinc octacarboxy phthalocyanine upon conjugation to magnetic nanoparticles(2013) International Journal of Nanoscience, 12 (2), art. no. 1350010, .

  • Sekhosana, K.E., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Glutathione capped CdTe@ZnS quantum dots-zinc tetracarboxy phthalocyanine conjugates: Fluorescence behavior studies in comparison with zinc octacarboxy phthalocyanine(2013) Polyhedron, 54, pp. 294-299.

  • Tombe, S., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Electrospun fibers functionalized with phthalocyanine-gold nanoparticle conjugates for photocatalytic applications(2013) Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 371, pp. 125-134.

  • Malinga, N., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Synthesis and physicochemical behaviour of aluminium bis and tris(diammine platinum) octacarboxyphthalocyanine(2013) Polyhedron, 55, pp. 121-125. 

  • Maringa, A., Mugadza, T., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Characterization and electrocatalytic behaviour of glassy carbon electrode modified with nickel nanoparticles towards amitrole detection(2013) Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 700, pp. 86-92. 

  • Masilela, N., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Axial coordination of zinc and silicon phthalocyanines to silver and gold nanoparticles(2013) Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines, 17 (6-7), pp. 417-430. 

  • Britton, J., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Synthesis and nonlinear optical examination of 3(4),15(16)-Bis-(4-tert- butyl-phenoxy)-10,22-diaminohemiporphyrazinato chloroindium (2013) Journal of Molecular Structure, 1047, pp. 143-148. 

  • Ogbodu, R.O., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Physicochemical properties of zinc monoamino phthalocyanine conjugated to folic acid and single walled carbon nanotubes(2013) Polyhedron, 60, pp. 59-67. 

  • Ogunlaja, A.S., Khene, S., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T., Torto, N., Tshentu, Z.R.The development of catalytic oxovanadium(IV)-containing microspheres for the oxidation of various organosulfur compounds(2013) Applied Catalysis A: General, 462-463, pp. 157-167.

  • Khoza, P., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Synthesis and photophysicochemical properties of zinc phthalocyanine derivatized with benzothiazole or carbazole photosensitizers(2013) Polyhedron, 61, pp. 119-125.

  •  D'Souza, S., Moeno, S., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Effects of gold nanoparticle shape on the aggregation and fluorescence behaviour of water soluble zinc phthalocyanines(2013) New Journal of Chemistry, 37 (7), pp. 1950-1958. 

  • Fayemi, O.E., Ogunlaja, A.S., Kempgens, P.F.M., Antunes, E., Torto, N., Nyokong, T., Tshentu, Z.R.Adsorption and separation of platinum and palladium by polyamine functionalized polystyrene-based beads and nanofibers(2013) Minerals Engineering, . Article in Press. 

  • Nyokong, T., Antunes, E.Influence of nanoparticle materials on the photophysical behavior of phthalocyanines (2013) Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 257 (15-16), pp. 2401-2418. 

  • Ogbodu, R.O., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Physicochemical properties of a zinc phthalocyanine-pyrene conjugate adsorbed onto single walled carbon nanotubes(2013) Dalton Transactions, 42 (30), pp. 10769-10777.

  • Fashina, A., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Silica nanoparticles grafted with phthalocyanines: Photophysical properties and studies in artificial lysosomal fluid(2013) New Journal of Chemistry, 37 (9), pp. 2800-2809. 

  • Walmsley, R.S., Litwinski, C., Antunes, E., Hlangothi, P., Hosten, E., McCleland, C., Nyokong, T., Torto, N., Tshentu, Z.R.Oxovanadium(IV)-containing poly(styrene-co-4′-ethenyl-2- hydroxyphenylimidazole) electrospun nanofibers for the catalytic oxidation of thioanisole (2013) Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 379, pp. 94-102. 

  • Sanusi, S.O., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Nonlinear optical behavior of metal octaphenoxy phthalocyanines:(2013) Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines, 17 (10), pp. 920-927. 

  • Modisha, P., Nyokong, T., Antunes, E. Photodegradation of Orange-G using zinc octacarboxyphthalocyanine supported on Fe3O4 nanoparticles (2013) Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 380, pp. 131-138.

  • Okewole, A.I., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T., Tshentu, Z.R. The development of novel nickel selective amine extractants: 2,20′-pyridylimidazole functionalised chelating resin (2013) Minerals Engineering, 54, pp. 88-93. 

  • Sanusi, K., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Optical nonlinearities in non-peripherally substituted pyridyloxy phthalocyanines: A combined effect of symmetry, ring-strain and demetallation (2014) Dalton Transactions, 43 (3), pp. 999-1010.

  • Managa, M., Idowu, M.A., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.  Photophysicochemical behavior and antimicrobial activity of dihydroxosilicon tris(diaquaplatinum)octacarboxyphthalocyanine.  (2014) Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 125, pp. 147-153.

  • Khoza, P., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Photophysichochemical behavior of carbazole derivatized zinc phthalocyanine in the presence of ZnO microparticles and when embedded in electrospun fibers. (2014) Dyes and Pigments. 104, pp. 57-66.

  • Maringa, A., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Electrochemical behaviour of gold nanoparticles and Co tetraaminophthalocyanine on glassy carbon electrode. (2014) Electrochimica Acta. 121, pp. 93-101.

  • Goethals, A., Mugadza, T., Arslanoglu, Y., Zugle, R., Antunes, E., Van Hulle, S.W.H., Nyokong, T., De Clerck, K.Polyamide nanofiber membranes functionalized with zinc phthalocyanines.(2014) Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 131 (13), 40486.

  • Fashina, A., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.A comparative photophysicochemical study of mono substituted phthalocyanines grafted onto silica nanoparticles.(2014) Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines. 18 (5), pp. 396-405.

  • Mthethwa, T., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T.Photophysical properties of a new water soluble tetra (4-(thiamine) substituted zinc phthalocyanine conjugated to gold nanorods of different aspect ratios.(2014) Dalton Transactions. 43 (22), pp. 8230-8240.

  • Fashina, A., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Photophysical behavior of Zn aminophenoxy substituted phthalocyanine conjugates with carboxylic acid-coated silica nanoparticles: Effect of point of substitution(2014) Journal of Molecular Structure. 1068 (1), pp. 245-254.

  • Managa, M., Antunes, E., Nyokong, T. Conjugates of platinum nanoparticles with gallium tetra - (4-Carboxyphenyl) porphyrin and their use in photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy when in solution or embedded in electrospun fiber (2014) Polyhedron. 76, Pages 94-101.

  • Photophysical properties of zinc tetracarboxy phthalocyanines conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles. P. Modisha, E. Antunes, T. Nyokong. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (2013), In press.  

​Peer Reviewed Conference Proceedings

  • W.H. Gerwick, K.L. McPhail, R. Linington, E. Antunes. Bioactive Peptides from Panamanian Marine Cyanobacteria.  Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. Abstracts, 41st Western Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, San Diego, CA, United States, October 9-13 (2007), GEN-196.

Chapters in books 

  •   Authors :    T. Nyokong, E. Antunes

  •   Reference :    Photochemical and photophysical properties of metallophthalocyanines: The Handbook of Porphyrin Science. Eds. Kadish, K. M.; Smith, K. M.; Guilard, R., Academic Press: New York, Vol. 7, chapt. 34 pp 247-349, World Scientific, Singapore, 2010. ISBN: 978-981-4307-18-5. 

  •  Authors :    E. Antunes, C. Litwinski, T. Nyokong.

  •   Reference :    Conjugates of nanomaterials with phthalocyanines: Intelligent Nanomaterials, Eds. A. Tiwari, A.K. Mishra, Y.K. Mishra, Wiley-Scrivener Publishing LLC, Salem, Massachusetts, USA, 2012.





 Prof. G. Watkins (Rhodes University, South Africa)
Dr. C. Litwinski (Picoquant GmbH, Germany)
Dr. E. Prinsloo (Rhodes University, South Africa)
Prof. M. Stillman (University of Western Ontario, Canada)

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