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 Prof. Mario Santos

Position: Professor, director Center for Radio-Cosmology
Department: Physics Programme
Faculty: Faculty of Natural Science
Qualifications: PhD from Oxford University, Master from Cambridge University, undergrad (Licenciatura) from University of Lisbon
Tel: 021 959 3461
Fax: 021 959 3461


 My main area of research is Cosmology. In particular, I’m studying how the next generation of large radio telescopes, such as MeerKAT  in South Africa and the future SKA will be able to answer fundamental questions in Cosmology, from the nature of dark energy or the physics of the primordial Universe to the process of Reionization when the first stars and galaxies of the Universe were born.  This research involves both analytical models and large scale numerical simulations as well as a good understanding of the telescopes setup. The huge volumes of data that will be provided by these experiments also allow for unique and exciting ways to develop novel statistical analysis techniques.

Experiments in which I’m currently involved: MeerKAT, SKA, PAPER, LOFAR, ASKAP, APERTIF, EUCLID.


  • David Alonso, Philip Bull, Pedro G. Ferreira, Mario G. Santos, “Blind foreground subtraction for intensity mapping experiments”, Submitted to MNRAS, 2014,

  • Stefano Camera, Mario G. Santos, Roy Maartens, “Probing primordial non-Gaussianity with SKA galaxy redshift surveys: a fully relativistic analysis”, MNRAS submitted (2014),

  • Emma Chapman, Mario G. Santos, Filipe Abdalla, ”A Peculiar Light Cone: A full treatment of peculiar velocities on the reionization light cone, “MNRAS (2014) submitted

  • Silva, M., Santos, M. G., Cooray, A. and Gong, Y., “Prospects for detecting CII emission during the Epoch of Reionization”, submitted to ApJ, 2014

  • Raccanelli, Alvise; Doré, Olivier; Bacon, David J.; Maartens, Roy; Santos, Mario G.; Camera, Stefano; Davis, Tamara; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Jarvis, Matt; Norris, Ray; Parkinson, David, “Probing primordial non-Gaussianity via iSW measurements with SKA continuum surveys”, PRD submitted, 2014,

  • Philip Bull, Pedro G. Ferreira, Prina Patel, Mario G. Santos, Late-time cosmology with 21cm intensity mapping experiments, ApJ submitted, 2014, arXiv:1405.1452

  • David Alonso, Pedro G. Ferreira, Mário G. Santos, Fast simulations for intensity mapping experiments, MNRAS, 444, 3183 (2014),

  • Ferramacho, Luis D.; Santos, Mario G. ; Jarvis, Matt J.; Camera, Stefano Radio Galaxy populations and the multi-tracer technique: pushing the limits on primordial non-Gaussianity, MNRAS (2014), 442, 2511,

  • Staniszewski, Z., Bock, J., Bradford. M., Brevik, J., Cooray, A., Gong, Y., Hailey-Dunsheath, S., O'Brient, R., Santos, M., Shirokoff, E., Silva M. and Zemcov, M., “The tomographic Ionized-Carbon Mapping Experiment (TIME) CII Imaging Spectrometer", 2014, Journal of Low Temperature Physics . ISSN 0022-2291

  • Ketron Mitchell-Wynne, Mario G. Santos, Jose Afonso, Matt J. Jarvis, “Beyond Stacking: A Maximum-Likelihood Method to Constrain Radio Source Counts Below the Detection Threshold”, MNRAS, 437, 2270 (2014),

  • Yan Gong, Marta Silva, Asantha Cooray, Mario G. Santos , “Foreground contamination in Ly-alpha intensity mapping during the epoch of reionization”, The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 785, Issue 1, article id. 72, 11 pp. (2014),

  • Lindsay, S. N.; Jarvis, M. J.; Santos, M. G.; Brown, M. J. I.; Croom, S. M.; Driver, S. P.; Hopkins, A. M.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Norberg, P.; Robotham, A. S. G., Galaxy and Mass Assembly: the evolution of bias in the radio source population to z ~ 1.5, MNRAS (2014) 440 (2): 1527-1541,

  • Stefano Camera, Mario G. Santos, Pedro G. Ferreira, Luis Ferramacho, Cosmology on Ultra-Large Scales with HI Intensity Mapping: Limits on Primordial non-Gaussianity, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 171302 (2013),

  • Hannes Jensen, Kanan K. Datta, Garrelt Mellema, Emma Chapman, Filipe B. Abdalla, Ilian T. Iliev, Yi Mao, Mario G. Santos, Paul R. Shapiro, Saleem Zaroubi, G. Bernardi, M. A. Brentjens, A. G. de Bruyn, B. Ciardi, G. J. A. Harker, V. Jelić, S. Kazemi, L. V. E. Koopmans, P. Labropoulos, O. Martinez, A. R. Offringa, V. N. Pandey, J. Schaye, R. M. Thomas, V. Veligatla, H. Vedantham, S. Yatawatta, Probing reionization with LOFAR using 21-cm redshift space distortions, MNRAS 435, 460 (2013),

  • Mellema, Garrelt; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Abdalla, Filipe A.; Bernardi, Gianni; Ciardi, Benedetta; Daiboo, Soobash; de Bruyn, A. G.; Datta, Kanan K.; Falcke, Heino; Ferrara, Andrea; Iliev, Ilian T.; Iocco, Fabio; Jelić, Vibor; Jensen, Hannes; Joseph, Ronniy; Labroupoulos, Panos; Meiksin, Avery; Mesinger, Andrei; Offringa, André R.; Pandey, V. N.; Pritchard, Jonathan R.; Santos, Mario G.; Schwarz, Dominik J.; Semelin, Benoit; Vedantham, Harish; Yatawatta, Sarod; Zaroubi, Saleem, Reionization and the Cosmic Dawn with the Square Kilometre Array, Experimental Astronomy, 10686, ISSN: 0922-6435, (2013)

  • Yan Gong, Asantha Cooray, Mario G. Santos, Probing the Pre-Reionization Epoch with Molecular Hydrogen Intensity Mapping, Astrophys.J., 768, 130 (2013),

  • Marta B. Silva, Mario G. Santos, Yan Gong, Asantha Cooray, James Bock, Intensity Mapping of Lyman-alpha Emission During the Epoch of Reionization, Astrophys.J. 763, 132 (2013),

  • S. Camera, M. G. Santos, D. J. Bacon, M. J. Jarvis, K. McAlpine, R. P. Norris, A. Raccanelli, H. Rottgering, Impact of Redshift Information on Cosmological Applications with Next-Generation Radio Surveys, MNRAS 427, 3, 2079-2088 (2012),

  • A. Cooray, Yan Gong, J. Smidt, M. G. Santos, The Near-infrared Background Intensity and Anisotropies during the Epoch of Reionization, Astrophys.J. 756 92 (2012),

  • A. Raccanelli, G. Zhao, D. J. Bacon, M. J. Jarvis, W. J. Percival, R. P. Norris, H. Rottgering, F. B. Abdalla, C. M. Cress, J. Kubwimana, S. Lindsay, R. C. Nichol, M. G. Santos, D. J. Schwarz, Cosmological Measurements with forthcoming Radio Surveys, MNRAS 424, 2, 801-819 (2012),


  • Y. Gong, A. Cooray, M. B. Silva, M. G. Santos, J. Bock, M. Bradford, M. Zemcov, Intensity Mapping of the [CII] Fine Structure Line during the Epoch of Reionization, Astrophys.J. 745 (2012) 49,

  • Y. Gong, X. Chen, M. Silva, A. Cooray, M. G. Santos, The OH line contamination of 21 cm intensity fluctuation measurements for z=1~4, ApJ Letters, 740, L20 (2011),

  • S. Joudaki, O. Dore, L. Ferramacho, M. Kaplinghat and M. G. Santos, Primordial non-Gaussianity from the 21 cm Power Spectrum during the Epoch of Reionization, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 131304 (2011),

  • Y. Gong, A. Cooray, M. B. Silva, M. G. Santos, P. Lubin, Probing Reionization with Intensity Mapping of Molecular and Fine Structure Lines, ApJ Letters 728, L46 (2011),

  • M. G. Santos, M.B. Silva, J. Pritchard, R. Cen, A. Cooray, Probing the first galaxies with the SKA, A&A 527, A93 (2011),

  • J. Smidt, A. Cooray, A. Amblard, S. Joudaki, D. Munshi, M. G. Santos, P. Serra, A Constraint On the Integrated Mass Power Spectrum out to z = 1100 from Lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background, ApJ Letters 728, L1 (2011),

  • M. G. Santos, L. Ferramacho, M.B. Silva, A. Amblard, A. Cooray, Fast large volume simulations of the 21-cm signal from the reionization and pre-reionization epochs, MNRAS 406 (2010) 2421-2432,

  • M. G. Santos, A. Amblard, J. Pritchard, H. Trac, R. Cen, A. Cooray, Cosmic Reionization and the 21 cm Signal: Comparison between an Analytical Model and a Simulation, Astrophys.J. 689 (2008) 1,

  • M. G. Santos and A. Cooray, Cosmological and Astrophysical parameter measurements with 21-cm anisotropies during the Era of Reionization, Phys. Rev. D 74 (2006) 083517,

  • X. Wang, M. Tegmark, M. G. Santos, L. Knox, Twenty-one centimeter tomography with foregrounds, Astrophys.J. 650 (2006) 529,

  • M. G. Santos, A. Cooray, L. Knox, Multifrequency Analysis of 21 cm fluctuations From the Era of Reionization, Astrophys.J. 625 (2005) 575,

  • M. G. Santos, A. Cooray, Z. Haiman, L. Knox, C.-P. Ma, Small-scale CMB Temperature and Polarization Anisotropies due to Patchy Reionization, Astrophys.J. 598 (2003) 756,

  • A. Heavens, M. Santos and P. Ferreira, The bispectrum of MAXIMA, New Astronomy Reviews, 47 (2003), 815-820

  • M. G. Santos, A. Heavens, A. Balbi, J. Borrill, P. G. Ferreira, S. Hanany, A. H. Jaffe, A. T. Lee, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, G. F. Smoot, R. Stompor, C. D. Winant, J. H. P. Wu, “Multiple Methods for Estimating the Bispectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background with Application to the MAXIMA Data”, MNRAS 341 (2003) 623,

  • E. Gaztanaga, J.Barriga, M. G. Santos and S. Sarkar, Cosmological parameters and the baryon density from CMB and galaxy fluctuations, Astrophysics and Space Science Library 274 (2002), 303-308

  • M. G. Santos, A. Balbi, J. Borrill, P. G. Ferreira, S. Hanany, A. H. Jaffe, A. T. Lee, J. Magueijo, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, G. F. Smoot, R. Stompor, C. D. Winant, J. H. P. Wu, Estimate of the Cosmological Bispectrum from the MAXIMA-1 Cosmic Microwave Background Map, Phys.Rev.Lett. 88 (2002) 241302,

  • M. G. Santos, F. Vernizzi and P. G. Ferreira, Isotropy and Stability of the Brane, Phys. Rev. D64 (2001) 063506,

  • J.Barriga, E. Gaztanaga, M. G. Santos and S. Sarkar, On the APM power spectrum and the CMB anisotropy: evidence for a phase transition during Inflation?, MNRAS 324 (2001) 977,

  • A. Amorim, M. G. Santos, J. P. Silva, New CP-violating parameters in cascade decays, Phys.Rev. D59 (1999) 056001,

  • M. L. Brown, et al., Probing the accelerating Universe with radio weak lensing in the JVLA Sky Survey, ArXiv e-prints (2013), arXiv:1312.5618 [astro-ph.CO]

  • M. B. Silva, M. G. Santos, J. R. Pritchard, R. Cen and A. Cooray, “Probing the Very First Galaxies with the SKA”, The Square Kilometre Array: Paving the way for the new 21st century radio astronomy paradigm, Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings, 2012, 101-116

  • Heywood, I.; Armstrong, R. P.; Booth, R.; Bunker, A. J.; Deane, R. P.; Jarvis, M. J.; Jonas, J. L.; Jones, M. E.; Kloeckner, H-R.; Kneib, J-P.; Knudsen, K. K.; Levrier, F.; Obreschkow, D.; Rigopoulou, D.; Rawlings, S.; Smirnov, O. M.; Taylor, A. C.; Verma, A.; Dunlop, J.; Santos, M. G.; Stanway, E. R.; Willott, C., MESMER: MeerKAT Search for Molecules in the Epoch of Reionization, Astronomy with megastructures: Joint science with the E-ELT and SKA, Crete, Greece, 2011,

  • M.G. Santos, L. Ferramacho, M.B. Silva, A. Amblard, A. Cooray, Fast Large Volume Simulations of the 21 cm Signal from the Reionization and pre-Reionization Epochs, 45th Rencontres de Moriond - Cosmology (2010)

  • Santos, M.G., Ferramacho, L., Silva, M.B., Fast Large Volume Simulations of the Epoch of Reionization, Proc. Wide Field Science and Technology for the SKA, Limelette, Belgium, ASTRON, ISBN 978-90-805434-5-4 (2010)

  • M. Santos, The Kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect, The Davis Meeting On Cosmic Inflation. 2003 March 22-25, Davis CA., p.37

  • J.Barriga, E. Gaztanaga, M. G. Santos and S. Sarkar, Evidence for an inflationary phase transition from the LSS and CMB anisotropy data, Nucl.Phys.Proc.Suppl. 95 (2001) 66-69,




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